[a]:98 Houseman and Welles were partners in the Mercury Theatre,:55 but when Mercury productions moved from New York to California the partnership ended and Houseman became an employee, working primarily as supervising editor on the radio shows. :81–82 Welles respected her for her service on the unproduced Heart of Darkness script. Everything begins and ends with that hostility behind the mandarin benevolence. There was continual communication with Welles,:81 and Houseman often travelled to Los Angeles to confer with him. :32:221 Welles wanted the work done as inconspicuously as possible,:17 and the ranch offered the additional advantage of prohibiting alcohol. The contract with Mankiewicz left the matter of his receiving credit open; Welles's correspondence with his lawyer indicated that he did not wish to deny credit to Mankiewicz. His contract with RKO stated that the film would be produced, directed, performed and written by Welles, and his "boy wonder" persona had great publicity value for the studio. The authorship of the screenplay for Citizen Kane, the 1941 American motion picture that marked the feature film debut of Orson Welles, has been one of the film's long-standing controversies. "That's why I left him on his own, finally," Welles said later, "because we'd started to waste too much time haggling. [i]:246 Mankiewicz and Houseman were put back on the Mercury payroll:262 June 18 – July 27,:29–30 and continued to help revise the script. Citizen Kane, widely considered the greatest film ever made, continues to fascinate critics and historians as well as filmgoers. He has also contributed "The Scripts of Citizen Kane" to Critical Inquiry :257, "Despite Houseman's description of himself and Herman paring every excess out of American, it was 325 pages long and outrageously overwritten, even for a first draft," wrote Meryman. He also transformed Kane from a cardboard fictionalization of Hearst into a figure of mystery and epic magnificence. :98, 116 Carringer found clues in the second draft that Welles was guiding the script, and in the third draft he documented Welles's direct involvement:105 and responsibility for the first major revisions. Mankiewicz also threatened to go to the Screen Writers Guild and claim full credit for writing the entire script by himself. "The Scripts of Citizen Kane" Any question of authorship was resolved with Carringer's 1978 essay, "The Scripts of Citizen Kane". :119 Welles came to suspect that Houseman had turned Mankiewicz against him. "Citizen Kane, widely considered the greatest film ever made, continues to fascinate critics and historians as well as filmgoers. ":80, Carringer found that the issues raised by Kael rested on the evidence of an early draft of the screenplay, primarily written by Mankiewicz,:80 which "elaborated the plot logic and laid down the overall story contours, established the main characters, and provided numerous scenes and lines that would eventually appear in one form or another in the film. The contributions to the screenplay made individually by Herman J. Mankiewicz and Orson Welles were expertly detailed by Robert L. Carringer in his 1978 study The Scripts of Citizen Kane. He respected Hearst's knowledge and was privileged to be invited to his private office where he mingled with Hearst's editors and columnists. He teaches and writes on film, American literature, and interdisciplinary approaches to literature. more… All Herman J. Mankiewicz scripts | Herman J. Mankiewicz Scripts You never felt you were basking in the warmth of his friendship. :487 Mankiewicz was advised by his agents, Columbia Management of California, and before he signed the contract it was again made clear that all credit for his work belonged to Welles and the Mercury Theatre, the "author and creator". But we got pretty quickly to the press lords. That was his role, and he played it to the hilt. ", For the next five weeks Mankiewicz wrote the first draft of the script for MGM's. Citizen Kane, widely considered the greatest film ever made, continues to fascinate critics and historians as well as filmgoers. As far as I could judge, the co-billing was correct. :264–265, Mankiewicz's rancor toward Welles grew over the remaining 12 years of his life. [n] Carringer studied the collection of script records—"almost a day-to-day record of the history of the scripting"—that was then still intact at RKO. Published By: The University of Chicago Press, Read Online (Free) relies on page scans, which are not currently available to screen readers. 6/19/40 FINAL. "[Welles] claims he wrote a parallel script," Houseman told Leaming. :52–53 He summarized the screenwriting process: "The initial ideas for this film and its basic structure were the result of direct collaboration between us; after this we separated and there were two screenplays: one written by Mr. Mankiewicz, in Victorville, and the other, in Beverly Hills, by myself. ":6, But at the same time, Houseman was stirring controversy, lunching with film critic Pauline Kael and giving Mankiewicz total credit for the creation of the script for Citizen Kane. "[j]:18 Houseman would openly say that Mankiewicz deserved sole credit for writing the film for many years—right up until his death—without explaining the contradictions present even in his own personal papers. The fact is that there isn't one single line in the picture that wasn't in writing—writing from and by me—before ever a camera turned. Who wrote Citizen Kane ? ", Academy Award for Best Writing (Original Screenplay), "Joseph Campbell and Jean De Blasis Interview", "Citizen Kane Remembered [May–June 1969]". Mankiewicz and his wife were part of the social set invited to Hearst Castle on several occasions. :245–246 Mankiewicz testified in a court proceeding a few years later[specify] that the idea for the film began with a March of Time-style sequence that set out the life of a particular character whose life would then be the subject of the film. "Mank always needed a villain. Request Permissions. raising kael on pauline kael s controversial criticism of. Welles's assistant Richard Wilson said that the person who circled Mankiewicz's name in pencil, then drew an arrow that put it in first place, was Welles. With the Victorville script now in hand he cut it by some 75 pages, and added or revised more than 170 pages. Current issues are now on the Chicago Journals website. ":168, Welles further said this to Mankiewicz's biographer: "I have only one real enemy in my life that I know about, and that is John Houseman. And people loved him. *FREE* shipping on eligible orders. Citizen Kane ROBERT L. CARRINGER In 1972, when a group of prominent film critics were asked to list the greatest directors and the greatest films, Orson Welles and Citizen Kane both came in first. Not coincidentally, it is also the Welles film that has the strongest story, the most fully realized characters, and the most carefully sculpted dialogue. CrossRef Google Scholar. . Screenwriter Herman J. Mankiewicz was a notorious personality in Hollywood. The best-known controversy in film criticism of recent years has been over the authorship of the Citizen Kane script. :26–27 "By far the most serious dramatic problem in American is its treatment of Kane," wrote Carringer. "It was a kind of controlled, cheerful virulence … I personally liked Kane, but I went with that. :227 A celebrated wit, Mankiewicz was valued for his conversation and was seated near his hosts at dinner. Citizen Kane, widely considered the greatest film ever made, continues to fascinate critics and historians as well as filmgoers. Citizen Kane is the only major Welles film on which the writing credit is shared. :132 "It was something [Mankiewicz] had been thinking about for years," Houseman wrote, “the idea of telling a man’s private life (preferably one that suggested a recognizable American figure), immediately following his death, through the intimate and often incompatible testimony of those who had known him at different times and in different circumstances.”:448–449, Welles himself had worked with the concept. Schnelle Lieferung, auch auf Rechnung - lehmanns.de Robert L. Carringer, "The Scripts of "Citizen Kane"," Critical Inquiry 5, no. Citizen Kane, widely considered the greatest film ever made, continues to fascinate critics and historians as well as filmgoers. ", "The by-line carried only my name," Bogdanovich later wrote, "but Orson had taken a strong hand in revising and rewriting. :238 Dated July 16, 1940, the final shooting script was 156 pages. ":494 The mainstream press accepted Kael's essay—an extension of her dispute with Andrew Sarris and the auteur theory—based on her credibility as one of the country's top film critics. Rosenbaum also reviewed the controversy in his editor's notes to This is Orson Welles (1992). Officially, Houseman was there as an editor. Welles's irritation with Mankiewicz passed quickly, and he spoke of him with fondness. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization helping the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways. Since its origins in 1890 as one of the three main divisions of the University of Chicago, The University of Chicago Press has embraced as its mission the obligation to disseminate scholarship of the highest standard and to publish serious works that promote education, foster public understanding, and enrich cultural life. 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